On its bottom, the sump contains an oil intake
On its bottom, the sump contains an oil intake covered by a mesh filter which is connected to an oil pump then to an oil filter outside the crankcase, from there it is diverted to the crankshaft main bearings and valve train. The crankcase contains at least one oil gallery (a conduit inside a crankcase wall) to which oil is introduced from the oil filter. The main bearings contain a groove through all or half its circumference; the oil enters to these grooves from channels connected to the oil gallery. The crankshaft has drillings which take oil from these grooves and deliver it to the big end bearings. All big end bearings are lubricated this way. A single main bearing may provide oil for 0, 1 or 2 big end bearings. A similar system may be used to lubricate the piston, its gudgeon pin and the small end of its connecting rod; in this system, the connecting rod big end has a groove around the crankshaft and a drilling connected to the groove which distributes oil from there to the bottom of the piston and from then to the cylinder.
Other systems are also used to lubricate the cylinder and piston. The connecting rod may have a nozzle to throw an oil jet to the cylinder and bottom of the piston. That nozzle is in movement relative to the cylinder it lubricates, but always pointed towards it or the corresponding piston.
Typically a forced lubrication systems have a lubricant flow higher than what is required to lubricate satisfactorily, in order to assist with cooling. Specifically, the lubricant system helps to move heat from the hot engine parts to the cooling liquid (in water-cooled engines) or fins (in air-cooled engines) which then transfer it to the environment. The lubricant must be designed to be chemically stable and maintain suitable viscosities within the temperature range it encounters in the engine.
Internal combustion engines require ignition
Internal combustion engines require ignition of the mixture, either by spark ignition (SI) or compression ignition (CI). Before the invention of reliable electrical methods, hot tube and flame methods were used. Experimental engines with laser ignition have been built.15
Spark Ignition Process
Points and Coil Ignition
The spark ignition engine was a refinement of the early engines which used Hot Tube ignition. When Bosch developed the magneto it became the primary system for producing electricity to energize a spark plug.16 Many small engines still use magneto ignition. Small engines are started by hand cranking using a recoil starter or hand crank . Prior to Charles F. Kettering of Delco's development of the automotive starter all gasoline engined automobiles used a hand crank.17
Larger engines typically power their starting motors and Ignition systems using using the electrical energy stored in a lead?acid battery. The battery's charged state is maintained by an automotive alternator or (previously) a generator which uses engine power to create electrical energy storage.
The battery supplies electrical power for starting when the engine has a starting motor system, and supplies electrical power when the engine is off. The battery also supplies electrical power during rare run conditions where the alternator cannot maintain more than 13.8 volts (for a common 12V automotive electrical system). As alternator voltage falls below 13.8 volts, the lead-acid storage battery increasingly picks up electrical load. During virtually all running conditions, including normal idle conditions, the alternator supplies primary electrical power.
Caring for your car interior
In many newspapers or on websites related to the automotive industry really we find a lot of information about how to take care of the interior of our car. It is true that, without wanting to cleaning we fail to create a truly clean and neatly decorated the interior of the car, but everything can be seen glancing at, for example, the final result proposed by the authors of such articles of guidance. In many cases, clean the upholstery or perform similar operations does not require special cleaning products, which undoubtedly is a huge advantage. This allows us to perform complex cleaning of many elements in the interior of our car in the back garden or in the garage.